Best 60 Seconds Strategies > Binary Options Strategy 2019

Wasteland 3 - Review Thread

Game Information

Game Title: Wasteland 3
Platforms:
Trailers:
Developer: inXile Entertainment
Publisher: Deep Silver
Review Aggregator:
OpenCritic - 84 average - 97% recommended - 39 reviews

Critic Reviews

33bits - Juanma F. Padilla - Spanish - 95 / 100
After the excellent Wasteland 2, we were excited to get our hands on the new installment, and we can say without fear that it has met expectations. Wasteland 3 is a sign of the love that InXile has for his work and Brian Fargo for the genre that has created a name for him. If you are a lover of the saga or the genre, do not hesitate to enjoy it.
ACG - Jeremy Penter - Buy

Video Review - Quote not available

Attack of the Fanboy - Diego Perez - 4.5 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is one of the best RPGs I've played in years, and it's one you absolutely should not skip.
CGMagazine - Lane Martin - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a lovely return to the post nuclear apocalypse with fun gameplay and interesting choices at its forefront, though at times it can be a bit clumsy in its implementation.
COGconnected - Tony Bae - 90 / 100
Wasteland 3 doesn’t pull any punches with its subject matter in sexuality, violence, and language. But if you are fine with that, I would highly recommend you give Wasteland 3 a shot, especially if you were (or still are) a Fallout fan.
Cerealkillerz - Julian Bieder - German - 8.8 / 10
On Paper Wasteland 3 sounds like the perfect RPG-Dream but the execution leaves much to be desired. Bugs, Glitches and graphics that doesn't really represent a game that releases and the end of this console generation are a bit of a letdown. Everything else from the great story, entertaining NPCs, solid battle system, clever leveldesign over to the love for details is amazing, besides some flaws that should soon be fixed, as inXile and Brian Fargo promise. Everyone that wasn't happy with the latest Fallout Games will surely love Wasteland 3.
Chicas Gamers - Adrián de Francisco - Spanish - Unscored
Wasteland 3 is a old-school role-playing game, with a compelling story, a combat system that promises but is not groundbreaking and some funny moments and black mood, which always remind us that we are in a post apocalyptic world, but with a smile. Don't forget the powerful character editor, rhythm voices, and the beautiful scenery that puts you in that atmosphere of cold and snowy Colorado.
Cram-Gaming - Robert Cram - 8.5 / 10
Wasteland 3 can be a bit of slog if you're gunning for marathon gaming sessions with it at the helm. Combat, whilst exciting initially can fall into the traps of repetition. A little more variety could have negated some of the repeated player actions. That said, the story is compelling and the characters an interesting assortment of misfit survivors, although perhaps fitting post-apocalyptic stereotypes. It's a fun, easy to play game overall though that should well-please fans of the series and keep players entertained for quite some time with its high replay-value. However, aside from some bugs here and there, the impressive amount of voice-work on offer, the character building is the best part of the experience where you can really nurture your ranger squad in this snowy post-apocalyptic world.
Digital Trends - Tom Caswell - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a rewarding game that offers unprecedented choice and is a great jumping on point for new players.
DualShockers - Kris Cornelisse - 9 / 10
Improving on its predecessor in almost every way, Wasteland 3 is one of the best and most reactive RPGs I've played in a long time.
EGM - Mollie L Patterson - Unscored
At least in my time with it, Wasteland 3 has been a fascinating experience. I’ve come to appreciate its depth of gameplay, character, building, and exploration, even if some of its pieces and parts still feel very foreign to me.
Entertainium - Eduardo Rebouças - Unscored
I will be even happier with Wasteland 3 once it’s patched and most of the bugs that bit me end up getting squashed. Even in its current state I’m having a grand ol’ time bringing some justice to the cold depths where no Ranger has dared to before. But for as much of a blast as I’m having out northeast in the cold, I hope I can make it back to sunny Arizona in time to save my fellow lawmen!
Eurogamer - Wesley Yin-Poole - Recommended
inXile's old-school RPG is the Fallout game we've been craving.
Fextralife - Castielle - 8.3 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a throwback to the old School RPGs of yesteryear, while providing a new combat experience and a bigger world. Players that liked previous Fallout Games, or games like Wasteland 2 or Baldur's Gate will feel right at home with this title, and will have the opportunity to try X-Com like combat. For the amount of content provided, 60 USD is a very good price, and fans of the genre should get more than their money's worth.
GAMES.CH - Nedžad Hurabašić - German - 83 / 100
Wasteland 3 is absolutely worth the money - the RPG brings dozens of hours of fun gameplay to the table. A must-buy for roleplayers.
Game Revolution - Jason Faulkner - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a marvel of a game, especially from a small studio like inExile. It’s not without its flaws, but the excellent writing and enthralling world overshadow those.
GameSkinny - Daniel Hollis - 9 / 10 stars
Wasteland 3 invokes feelings of classic RPGs such as Fallout and manages to nail the feel and tone perfectly in a modernized setting.
GameWatcher - Marcello Perricone - 8.5 / 10
A fantastic RPG that superbly mixes player choice and great combat to something bigger than the sum of its parts.
GamesRadar+ - Andrew King - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 doesn't bring much new to the table, both as a CRPG and as a piece of post-apocalyptic fiction. But, it's a terrifically executed role-playing game that rewards player investment from beginning to end.
GamingBolt - Ravi Sinha - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a heady crescendo of post-apocalyptic story-telling. Its combat is compelling and fun while its characters and overall plot are engrossing, even when it goes to some dark places. A must-play for tactical RPG fans.
Gert Lush Gaming - Jim Smale - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 is the defacto strategy experience and one that every gamer owes themself the pleasure of playing.
God is a Geek - Mick Fraser - 9.5 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a huge undertaking, marrying deep, choice-driven role play with fast-paced tactical combat and vast areas to explore.
IGN Spain - Álex Pareja - Spanish - 8 / 10
Wasteland 3 knows how to open to new players keeping the old school essence. It's not a revolution on the genre or in the post apocaliptic proposal, but it won't matter to the franchise lovers.
Niche Gamer - Cwb - 3.5 / 10
We’ll update this review if the game is fixed, and the issues outlined are fixed or at least addressed; and then I’ll pick it back up. As it stands now, I’ll be playing something else that isn’t as apt to crash. Buyer beware.
PC Gamer - Jody Macgregor - 84 / 100
A wilfully strange setting explored through a predictable but enjoyable old school RPG thats been streamlined just enough.
PC Invasion - Jason Rodriguez - 8.5 / 10
There are a few misgivings related to Wasteland 3's technical aspects, mechanics, and overall challenge. However, its cast of characters (both old and new), the switch to a traditional turn-based combat system, and branching paths filled with decisions and dire consequences make for a superb journey with the Desert Rangers.
PCGamesN - Gina Lees - 9 / 10
Lurid characters, a deep RPG system, and captivating combat set in an unhinged apocalypse - inXile Entertainment's latest shouldn't be missed.
Player2.net.au - Matt Hewson - A or higher
With a focus on freedom of choice that is second-to-none, Wasteland 3 has set the benchmark for CRPG narratives, all the while being supported by wonderfully engaging gameplay and roleplaying mechanics.
PowerUp! - Leo Stevenson - 9.7 / 10
If you’re an RPG fan, a Fallout fan or even just a videogame fan, do yourself a favour and play one of this year’s very best games; Wasteland 3.
Saving Content - Scott Ellison II - 5 / 5 stars
It took me a while to realize how much these interactions, whether it be the interpersonal conversation or combat encounters themselves, stuck with me. Wasteland 3 has rules, but they only exist for you to bend them. With limitless character creation combinations, branching dialogue choices that affect what quests you do or don’t experience, and multiple endings, Wasteland 3 is an expanse of content and opportunity. The change in locale does wonders, no longer relying on a tired post-apocalyptic biome. Wasteland 3 has a wonderful backdrop in Colorado’s frozen wastes, making it the perfect place to spend a nuclear winter.
Screen Rant - Christopher Teuton - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 takes players to a new location and presents them with equally unfamiliar challenges, yet still perfectly demonstrates all of the reasons why this series has had die-hard fans for over three decades, and is absolutely worth playing for anyone looking for their next post-apocalyptic fix.
Shacknews - Josh Hawkins - 9 / 10
If you’re a big fan of the original Wasteland games, or just an RPG fan in general, then I highly recommend picking up Wasteland 3 and giving it a try.
Spaziogames - Paolo Sirio - Italian - 8.3 / 10
Wasteland 3 doesn't change its predecessor's successful formula but, outside of certain design limitations, it perfects and modernizes it. It's easily the best game in the franchise, in terms of pure technique, and one that clearly gives you an idea of what inXile is able to achieve.
The Games Machine - Danilo Dellafrana - Italian - 8.7 / 10
Wasteland 3 is a good role-playing game, technically passable but enriched by a dense network of intriguing subplots that will push the most dedicated to play it several times. Watch out for the ever-present release bugs, though – best to wait a couple patches if you want to avoid unnecessary hurdles.
TrustedReviews - Alastair Stevenson - 4 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a solid tactical RPG that will keep fans of the genre entertained for hours upon hours. But it doesn't do enough to bring the genre forward to a mainstream audience.
WayTooManyGames - Thomas Medina - 9 / 10
All in all, this is the game I wanted so badly for Wasteland 2 to be. It doesn’t just repeat what came before, but expands upon it all. Not just mechanically, but story wise as well.
Wccftech - Francesco De Meo - 9 / 10
Wasteland 3 features everything only the best role-playing games do: an engaging story powered by excellent writing, compelling characters, tons of customization options, and a deep tactical combat system that feels fresh even after dozens of hours. But, most of all, it features a living world that reacts to what the player does, and changes depending on how the player decides to deal with the troubles ahead, providing a role-playing experience of the highest degree, one that very few games can boast of.
Windows Central - Jez Corden - 5 / 5 stars
Wasteland 3 is a testament to the power of the branching narrative, taking it far beyond binary choices and into a grand canopy of cause and effect. It gives the wintry climbs of Colorado a lifelike quality that must have been painstaking to build. The most impressive RPG in years, Wasteland 3 is a masterpiece.
XboxEra - Jesse Norris - 9.7 / 10
Wasteland 3 shines with clear dedication to crafting the best game its genre has ever seen. Excellent visuals are matched by top notch voice work and some of the best and most natural writing I have seen in a video game not made by Naughty Dog. The combat is a brutal dance where one wrong move can spell disaster, but victory is an exhilarating rush that never becomes old. Wasteland 3 cements inXile as one of the best in the business in the RPG genre and affirms that Xbox has something truly special on their hands.
submitted by diogenesl to Games [link] [comments]

OBLIGATORY FILLER MATERIAL – ESCAPE FROM STALAG SULTANATE, Part 1

That reminds me of a story.
“HELLFIRE AND DALMATIANS!” I shouted to no one in particular.
“What’s the problem, dear?” Esme asks in that way she has of telling me to calm down without having to say it directly.
“This bloody fucking country. A day late and several dollars short.” I fume. “Can’t get a new liquor license because of the bloody COVID. Can’t go to a hotel bar and have a snort because of the bloody COVID. Can’t even slip across the border to Dubai and soak up some room service and buckets of complimentary cocktails because of the bloody COVID.”
Yes, the Sultanate of Oman, in its infinitesimal wisdom, has traditionally followed other GCC countries by at least three months in making any sort of proclamations regarding this latest bugaboo: the hideous, deadly, itchy, loathsome, and possibly serially bent, noxious, pandemical COVID-19; aka, this pandemic’s entry for flu.
Their response is one of immense knee-jerk without first having thought of the consequences.
“Bloody lockdown, 2100 to 0700. What is this, the whole fucking country’s been bad and now being sent to bed without any supper?” I wondered aloud. “Idiot benchodes.”
Even Esme couldn’t come up with a rejoinder to that.
“Plus they close all the bars. And all the hotels. And the fucking bottle shops. It’s not enough that these fucking Muppets jack the ‘sin tax’ on booze and cigars by 100%, now they’re not even legally available.” I swore.
Of course, once you’ve spent even a small portion of the time that I have in the Middle East, you have your connections. Your system. Your access to the seedy underbelly of any society; the venerable Black Market.
Jesus Q. Christ on toast with baked beans, fried tomatoes, black pudding, and mushrooms, I could get most anything in the Middle East, be it legal, shady, or just plain illegal. However, before you all recoil in horror that the venerable Dr. Rocknocker dabbles in the prohibited, just remember: the ends always dojustify the means.
“I'm telling you, Esme dear; this Gulf story is getting too complicated. The weasels have started closing in.” I complain to Es as she hands me a fresh drink.
“Do you think…?” Esme asks expectantly.
Esme is more than ready to go. I’ve used this place as a base of operations for years whilst I wear out the Omani legal system suing those asswipes that think just because they’re local and I’m a kafir, they’re immune to the law.
I’ve spent a long, profitable and time-consuming period of the last few years proving them wrong.
But, time was marching onwards. I agreed with Esme, we’ve milked this particular cash cow dry. It was time to hitch up our bootstraps, call it a day, and get the hell out of Dodge.
But not before I took care of a few loose ends.
Now, the country had recently lost its venerable Sultan, who croaked back in January of this year.
Sultan Qaboos was a good egg, friend to expat and local alike. Did a shitload of good for this benighted Middle East sandpit. Dragged it kicking and screaming out of the 12th century into, well, not exactly the 21st, but a whole hell of a lot closer.
He realized that he needed revolutionary, not evolutionary change in the country. By revolutionary, he needed American, British, Canadian, and the like Western Expats here to do the heavy thinking and lifting and Eastern Expats like Indians, Bangladeshis and Nepalese to do all the scut work.
Yeah, I know. That sounds racist as fuck, but sometimes that’s the way the ball bounced.
Simple evolution of society where Omanis graduated the local equivalent of grade school, through high school, into University, and finally into Entry level jobs in the oil and gas industry wasn’t going to cut it. Took too long and the country needed a serious cash flow now.
So, that’s what he did. And it worked a treat.
Then he died.
And his chosen took over.
Except his chosen was pretty much antithetical to everything the previous and very revered and successful, Sultan wanted.
Soon, there are 100% ‘sin taxes’ aimed directly at the western expats. Tourists included.
Then there’s quotas and ‘Letters of No Objection’, which are impossible to get so that the Eastern Expats can’t switch jobs.
Then, there are Sultanic proclamations of new taxes on tourists, new taxes on fast food, new taxes on this, that and the other. Then there’s, in his own words, “Oman is for Omanis”, blatantly ridiculous and xenophobic Omanization, and the general swipe at all expats.
“GET OUT.”
This was the clear message of the new sultan.
He wanted to take over and possibly nationalize all the oil workings in the country.
Ask Venezuela, Iran, and Myanmar how well that worked out for them.
Then he wants all expats out on their asses. He wants Omanis to take over all the jobs, even though they’re nowhere near educated nor experienced enough for the positions. Then take up the massive GDP slack in lower oil production and oil prices with tourism.
Given everything else, that last line should be enough to get him off the throne.
He’s fucking nuts if he thinks people are going to want to cruise or overland anywhere near a place where foreigners are seen only as a cash supply, are despised, and would welcome these all new 100% tax levies.
Be that as it may, Esme and I decided that we have had enough of 135O F summer temperatures, virtual house arrest under the guise of a COVID lockdown, and idiots who were the only ones stupid or twisted enough not to vamoose when the great, big bloody letters were clearly written on the wall.
But, there was the physical act of getting out of the country.
Now, I had plenty of strings which I could pull, but I decided I’d start low and save those until we really needed them.
So low, in fact, we went to the US Embassy in Muscat.
“How low can you go?” reverberated through my head.
What a haven of sad-sacks, flubadubs, and third rate hobbyists.
Was either Esme or I surprised that when we finally secured an invitation to the embassy, that required a bit of string-pulling with the ex-Ambassador to Oman, now in Kabul; that besides the peach-fuzz faced Marine guarding the place, we were the only Americans in the joint?
“This is American soil!” I laughed, as I pulled out a huge Cuban cigar and was immediately told to extinguish it. “We’re as American as apple pie and napalm! We file our fucking 1040s every April; I pay my fucking long-distance taxes and demand US assistance to vacate this gloomy place of sandy, sweaty, sultry Sturm und Drang!”
“Shut up, Rock”, Esme chided me, “They don’t understand English. Much less, the florid English the way you trowel it on.”
“Fuckbuckets”, I remonstrated. “Here I had memorized the whole Patrick Henry speech he made to the Second Virginia Convention on March 23, 1775, at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia. Troglodytes. No admiration for the classics.”
“Rock, dear?” Esme noted, “It’s almost 1100 hours. Best to get to our appointment.”
True, our appointment was slated for 1100 hours. But around here, anything starting within three hours of the stated time was considered close enough.
We dragged ourselves, none too cheerfully, to the waiting room. Once we pried open the door, there was the usual “If you hear a high pitched wail, hit the deck” signs, and other things one could do while kissing one’s ass goodbye if there was a terrorist attack, we had a whole new slew of bullshit with which to deal.
“Social distancing. 6 feet. Or if you’re from Baja Canada, 1 cow’s length.”
“Must wear a mask. Bandanna, bandoliers, and large-caliber weapons or sombrero optional.”
“No sitting. Faux Naugahyde seats are too difficult to sterilize. You must stand at attention, do not talk amongst yourselves, and remain patient until your number is called.”
“Well, fuck!”, I snorted quietly, as I raised my first secret flask in rapt attention to our old glory of red, white, and blue.
“Good thing they didn’t say nothin’ about getting a load on. If I’m going to be treated like cattle, I’m going to at least have something to chew on in the process.”
“Oh, lord”, Esme grumbled, “You didn’t bring that Japanese Rye Whiskey with you, did you?”
“ルハイム”, I said, which is Japanese for “L’chaim”!
“Oh, hell”, Esme grinned as she borrowed my flask, “This is going to be a long day.”
I began to protest but remembered that I was wearing my Agency-issued field vest. I must have had at least 5 or 6 more flasks lurking around in those pockets somewhere.
Funny aside: they don’t bother with my going through an X-ray machine nor do they confiscate my phone, radio, knives, nor other field equipment when I go to the US Embassy.
It took them almost two solid hours last time, and by the time they got to my Brunton Compass, emergency flasks, a few spare blasting cap boosters, and saw the label sewn into the back of my vest, they decided they’d just send Rack and Ruin some evil Emails and let me pass unmolested.
“I’ll drink to that”, I say as I raise a flask as the locals raise an eyebrow. “Courtesy of Atheists International. We’re here for your children…”
The collective gasps and growls indicate they weren’t happy with me or my betrothed.
“Don’t care, Buckwheat”, I smiled, “Never did, never will. We’re out of here for good. You can curse my name all you want then. But, then again, why you standing in the American Embassy trying to get a visa to visit the land of the great evil empire?”
All the locals and most of the Eastern Expats crowded into a corner as far away from us as they physically could.
“BOO!” I snickered over a shot of Wild Turkey 101 Rye.
“Now serving number 58! Number 58!” came the call over the tannoy.
“Look at that”, I remarked to Es as I stashed both our flasks, “It’s only 12:35. Record time.”
We both shimmy into the glass-fronted and presumably bullet- but not C-4 resistant- glass.
We pick up the telephones there and acknowledge that we are who we said we were.
The East Indian fella, one Harsh Talavalakar, behind the multiple layers of glass asked us why we were here.
“Didn’t you read the appointment card?” I asked, “We’re here to have Uncle Sam get us passage out of this sordid and sultry place.”
“You are American citizens?” he asked, vacantly.
“That’s what it says on appointment cards and these here blue passports,” I replied.
“Well, how was I to know?” he scoffed, returning to his half-consumed powdered sugar doughnut.
“Maybe read the appointment card and see that we are US Citizens here on the behest of Ambassador Bethesda Orun?” I replied.
“Like I have time to read everything that comes across my desk”, he scoffed again.
I tapped on the glass to make certain I had his full attention.
“Look here, Herr Harsh. I’m not sure how you got this job at the American Consulate but want to be very clear with you. My wife and I are residents of this place for the last 20 years. We’re American citizens of very high standing and have more high powered connections than an Arduino in a nuclear power station. We have direct connections with Langley, Virginia and if you want to retain your cushy job, you’ll put down that fucking doughnut and pay very rapt attention to the two Americans standing here who are getting more and more irritated with some Indian benchode that doesn’t think he has to really do his job. You savvy? You diggin’ me, Beaumont
I guess the benchode got his attention. The two scowls he received from Esme and myself sort of cemented the idea that we’re not too pleased and not with to be trifled.
“Yes, sir?” he said, “And ma’am”, as Harsh quickly corrected himself as the doughnut disappeared.
“We want out. Gone. Vamoose. Outta here. AMF. You got me?” he nods behind the shatterprone glass.
“Now I know the borders are sealed and the airport’s closed, but fuck that. We want out and we want gone for good. I can’t make that much simpler or clearer. Get after it, son.” I said, as seriously as I could.
“Well, sir”, he began, “ The airport’s closed…”
“Are you deaf or born stupid and been losing ground ever since?” I asked, rhetorically. “I know that. We all know that. My HAT knows that. So, what devious little plan does the US Embassy have in store in just such an unsavory situation?”
“Well”, he chokes a bit, “There’s this unofficial lottery where America citizens are issued random numbers and if their number comes up, there are seats made available on special clandestine charter flights.”
Considering that Es and I are some of the last American citizens left in the country, I thought our chances might be pretty good.
“OK”, I said, “Let us have two of your finest numbers.”
“Yes, sir”, he said, “That will be US$500 total.”
“Excuse me?” I said.
“Oh, yes”, he smirked, “US$250 per number. Chances are you’ll never be called, but with these numbers, at least you stand a chance.”
“OK”, I said, “Forget the numbers. I want your name and operating number. I’ve got a report to file that’s due in Virginia before breakfast.”
“Oh, sir”, he smirked more, “I cannot release that information. Thanking you. Now be having a good day.” And he slammed the supposedly bulletproof shield between himself and Es and me.
“Bulletproof? Maybe. Nitro proof? No fucking way.” I groused as I fished out a couple of blasting cap superfast boosters.
“Calm down, dear”, Esme smiled to me as we walked out, “When he wasn’t looking, I took his picture, got his operating number, and full name. In fact, I think I got some information on where he lives…”
In the cab on the way back to our villa, I reviewed and confirmed Es’s subterfuge. Flasks number 6 and 8 needed serious replenishment by the time we arrived home.
“That’s fucking right, Ruin.” I yelled over the phone, “We need extraction. And now. Along with our personal effects and a few hundredweight of ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ boxes of stuff we need to be transported.”
“Well, Rock”, Agent Ruin replied, “That’s a tall order. Usually, extraction is for one person and the stuff they’re wearing. Tell you what. Let Rack and I work on it for a week or so. We’ll arrange transport of your personal effects, then we’ll see about getting you and Esme to Dubai. At least there, you can order a plane. Hell, knowing you, you’ll get Tony Stark to fly in and provide door to door service. Sit tight. We’ll be back in touch.”
“Good!” I say as I slam the phone down. With these newfangled cellphone telephone instruments, they lack the same sort of satisfying “KER FUCKING CLANG” the old landlines used to have.
“Es!”, I yelled, “Start packing. We’re due out of here within a week.”
That meant we needed to do some packing triage:
• Things going home with us.
• Things being shipped.
• Things being sold.
• Things being left behind.
• Things no one was about to get their furry little mitts on.
“Oh, fuck!”, I startled. I had just remembered the John Wick-ian stash of various explosives, and adjunct materials I had buried in the basement. Obviously, I couldn’t take it home with me, I couldn’t sell it, and I sure as festering frothing fuck wasn’t going to leave it here.
I needed to call one of my more shifty and swarthy friends and arrange for passage out to the deep, dark desert. Around the area where the new sultan had opened a couple of brand new landfills.
Looks like I was going to expand them a few meters once we disposed of the few hundred kilos of accumulation I attained over the last few years.
See, I’m a packrat. I never leave nor toss anything that might be convenient. Might have a benefit. Might prove to be useful sometime down the line.
So, I’ve accumulated a bit of kit.
Like…well…a few hundred sticks of Du Pont 60% Extra Fast Dynamite. A couple dozen spools of Z-4 Primacord, in various degrees of fullness. A shitload of C-4; enough bricks for a Floydian wall. A couple, well, a dozen, well, two dozen cases of binary liquid explosives. Hey, this stuff is hard to come by…
Continuing, several thousand blasting caps and superfast flash blasting cap boosters. Some mercury fulminate. Some nitrogen triiodide. A couple tens of pounds of PETN. An equal amount of RDX. A few Erlenmeyer flasks full of shit even I’m not certain of what it is…
Oh.
And a few kilos of freshly decanted, raw nitroglycerin; packed in sturdy wooden boxes lined with new fuzzy lamb’s wool.
Not that much. Just 10 or 12 kilos.
Yeah. I can’t leave that here. Even a small accident with this stuff would lay waste to not only our villa; but my landlord’s villa with whom we share a common wall.
Besides, as Omanis go, my landlord was the only dishdasha dressed denizen for which I had any respect or admiration. He was a good guy. I needed to return his villa at least in some semblance of what I received when we first rented from him.
So, I had to dispose of many, many billions of kilojoules of potential energy. I needed to do this out in a distant and far away from prying ears and eyes regions and I needed a truck to haul this stuff out to the range.
To be continued…
submitted by Rocknocker to Rocknocker [link] [comments]

11-04 23:47 - 'DON'T USE THIS' (self.linux) by /u/CreeperTyE removed from /r/linux within 6-16min

'''
This is for cyberpatriots, pls don't use this.
#!/bin/bash
# CyberPatriot Ubuntu (Trusty Tahr) Script v0.3.5
# Root is required to run this script, but chmod should not be used on script or run as root.
# User running script must be in group 'sudo'.
#
# Not everything is covered in this script. Please make sure to review checklist and the Securing Debian Manual.
# This script is only meant to be used for whichever team Keita Susuki is on.
# CHANGES: sed is now more often used to find and replace instead of append to config files
function main {
kernel_info=$(uname -a)
time=$(date)
display_info=$(whoami)
sshd="/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
apache_s="/etc/apache2/apache2.conf"
vsftpd_s="/etc/vsftpd.conf"
echo "---------------------------------------------------------"
echo "Script version: v0.3.5"
echo "Current User: $display_info"
echo "Team: Binary Bros"
echo "Current Time: $time"
echo "Kernel info: $kernel_info"
echo "Now, what can I do for you today?"
echo "---------------------------------------------------------"
echo -en '\n'
read -p "Press ENTER to continue."
echo -en '\n'
echo "WARNING: IF YOU HAVE NEGLECTED TO COMPLETE THE FORENSICS QUESTIONS, IMMEDIATELY CTRL+C THIS SCRIPT."
echo "HAVE YOU COMPLETED ALL THE FORENSICS QUESTIONS? [Y/N]"
read -r forensic_questions
if [[ $forensic_questions == "y" || $forensic_questions == "Y" ]]; then
clear
echo "Good. Now let's start working."
elif [[ $forensic_questions == "n" || $forensic_questions == "N" ]]; then
echo "Finish the forensics questions and come back."
exit
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Before using apt, we need to check to see if sources.list hasn't been tampered with."
echo "Redirecting you to /etc/apt/sources.list in 5 seconds..."
sleep 5
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
echo "Securing /run/shm."
echo "r-- is dangerous, only on servers if there is no reason for /run/shm."
echo "Read only /run/shm can cause many programs to break. Be cautious."
echo -en '\n'
echo "Options:"
echo "Mount /run/shm r-- (read-only) [r]"
echo "Mount /run/shm rw- (read-write) [w]"
echo "Skip this method. [x]"
read -r shared_memory
if [[ $shared_memory == "r" || $shared_memory == "R" ]]; then
echo "none /run/shm tmpfs defaults,ro 0 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
echo "Done. Restart box after script has run its course."
elif [[ $shared_memory == "w" || $shared_memory == "w" ]]; then
echo "none /run/shm tmpfs rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev 0 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
echo "Done. Restart box after script has run its course."
elif [[ $shared_memory == "x" || $shared_memory == "X" ]]; then
echo "Understood. Check UnsafeDefaults page on Ubuntu's website."
fi
echo -en '\n'
echo "Next, we will check hosts file. Make sure nothing looks amiss (default config)."
echo "Redirecting you to hosts file in 5 seconds..."
sleep 5
sudo gedit /etc/hosts
echo -en '\n'
echo "See if nameserver is unfamiliar, if it is, change to google public (8.8.8.8)."
echo "Redirecting you in 3 seconds..."
sudo gedit /etc/resolv.conf
echo -en '\n'
echo "I will now install packages necessary for the security of the system."
echo -en '\n'
sudo apt-get -y -qq install rkhunter clamav clamtk gufw ufw libpam-cracklib vim nmap sysv-rc-conf bum unattended-upgrades logcheck lynis members auditd chkrootkit fail2ban
echo -en '\n'
echo "Configuring automatic upgrades.."
sudo dpkg-reconfigure --priority=low unattended-upgrades
echo "Would you like to manually use gufw or have the script automatically use ufw and close off ports?"
echo -en '\n'
echo "Options:"
echo "g: gufw"
echo "a: auto ufw"
echo "ga: ufw then manual gufw"
read -r firewall_config
if [[ $firewall_config == "g" || $firewall_config == "G" ]]; then
echo "Opening gufw in 5 seconds..."
sleep 5
sudo gufw
elif [[ $firewall_config == "a" || $firewall_config == "A" ]]; then
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw deny 23
sudo ufw deny 2049
sudo ufw deny 515
sudo ufw deny 111
sudo ufw deny 9051
sudo ufw deny 31337
sudo ufw status
echo "Automatic configuration of firewall completed. I recommend that you look over this again."
sleep 10
elif [[ $firewall_config == "ga" || $firewall_config == "GA" ]]; then
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw deny 23
sudo ufw deny 2049
sudo ufw deny 515
sudo ufw deny 111
sudo ufw deny 9051
sudo ufw deny 31337
sudo gufw
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Running nmap on 127.0.0.1 to display open ports..." # nmap isn't considered a "hacking tool"
echo "Would you also like to save output to nmap_output.txt [y/n]?"
echo -en '\n'
read -r nmap_input
if [[ $nmap_input == "y" || $nmap_input == "Y" ]]; then
echo "Sending output to nmap_output.txt.."
touch nmap_output.txt
echo "Running nmap on localhost again so you can see the output."
nmap -sV 127.0.0.1 > nmap_output.txt
sleep 10
echo -en '\n'
elif [[ $nmap_input == "n" || $nmap_input == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood. Running nmap on localhost.."
nmap -sV 127.0.0.1
sleep 10
echo -en '\n'
else
echo "Error: bad input."
echo -en '\n'
fi
echo "Now please disable unneeded processes keeping ports open."
sleep 5
sudo sysv-rc-conf # preferred tool for this
echo -en '\n'
echo "Please make sure there is nothing besides exit 0 and some comments."
sleep 5
sudo vim /etc/rc.local
echo -en '\n'
echo "Checking for sshd_config file"
if [ -f "$sshd" ]; then
echo "sshd is present on this system."
echo "Is sshd a critical service on this machine? [y/n]"
echo "note: selecting N will remove sshd from this system. Proceed with caution."
read -r sshd_critical
if [[ $sshd_critical == "y" || $sshd_critical == "Y" ]]; then
sshd_secure_config
elif [[ $sshd_critical == "n" || $sshd_critical == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo -en '\n'
echo "Would you like to restart sshd? [y/n]"
read -r sshd_restart_uinput
if [[ $sshd_restart_uinput == "Y" || $sshd_restart_uinput == "y" ]]; then # may take points and then give back
echo "Restarting sshd..."
sudo service sshd restart
elif [[ $sshd_restart_uinput == "n" || $sshd_restart_uinput == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood. Remember that changes will not happen until sshd is restarted."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
fi
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Disabling guest user and turning off autologin. Editing /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf"
echo "Checklist reference: GENERAL/8 Alpha, Bravo"
echo "Remember to restart lightdm or restart box later on."
echo "I will direct you there in 5 seconds."
sleep 5
sudo vim /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf
echo -en '\n'
printf "Now, would you like for me to add some better settings for /etc/sysctl.conf? [y\n]"
read -r secure_sysctl
if [[ $secure_sysctl == "y" || $secure_sysctl == "Y" ]]; then
sysctl_secure_config
elif [[ $secure_sysctl == "n" || $secure_sysctl == "N" ]]; then
echo -en '\n'
echo "Understood, I recommend you do this manually however."
else
echo -en '\n'
echo "Error: bad input"
fi
echo -en '\n'
echo "Lock the root account? [y/n]"
read -r disable_root
echo -en '\n'
if [[ $disable_root == "y" || $disable_root == "Y" ]]; then
sudo passwd -l root
echo "Root account locked."
elif [[ $disable_root == "n" || $disable_root == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, manually lock please."
else
echo "Bad input."
fi
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Limit access to su to all users but the ones in group wheel? [y/n]"
echo -en '\n'
read -r lim_su
if [[ $lim_su == "y" || $lim_su == "Y" ]]; then
sudo chown [link]1 /bin/su sudo
chmod 04750 /bin/su
echo "Done."
elif [[ $lim_su == "n" || $lim_su == "N" ]]; then
echo "Remember to manually limit access to su! All it takes is a single uncomment..."
else
echo "Bad input."
fi
clear
if [[ -f "$apache_s" ]]; then
echo "Is apache2 supposed to be installed on this system? [y/n]"
echo "If you choose N then you will subsequently uninstall apache2. Be careful."
read -r apache2_que
if [[ $apache2_que == "y" || $apache2_que == "Y" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on to securing apache2."
apache2_secure
elif [[ $apache2_que == "n" || $apache2_que == "N" ]]; then
echo "Uninstalling apache2..."
sudo service apache2 stop
sudo apt-get purge apache2
else
echo "Bad input."
fi
else
echo "Apache2 is not installed, moving on."
fi
if [[ -f "$vsftpd_s" ]]; then
echo "vsftpd configuration file detected."
echo "Is vsftpd a critical service on this machine? [y/n]"
echo "If you choose N then you will subsequently uninstall vsftpd. Be careful."
read -r vsftpd_choice
if [[ $vsftpd_choice == "y" || $vsftpd_choice == "Y" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on to securing vsftpd."
vsftpd_secure
elif [[ $vsftpd_choice == "n" || $vsftpd_choice == "N" ]]; then
sudo service vsftpd stop
sudo apt-get purge vsftpd
else
echo "Bad input."
fi
else
echo "vsftpd is not installed on this machine, moving on."
fi
clear
echo "Check apparmor? [y/n]"
read -r apparmor_check
if [[ $apparmor_check == "y" || $apparmor_check == "Y" ]]; then
apparmor_fix
elif [[ $apparmor_check == "n" || $apparmor_check == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
echo -en '\n'
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo -en '\n'
echo "Deny su to non admins? [y/n]"
echo -en '\n'
read -r deny_su
if [[ $deny_su == "y" || $deny_su == "Y" ]]; then
sudo dpkg-statoverride --update --add root sudo 4750 /bin/su
echo "Done."
elif [[ $deny_su == "n" || $deny_su == "N" ]]; then
sudo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo -en '\n'
echo "Secure home directory? [y/n]"
echo "NOTE: potentially dangerous."
echo -en '\n'
read -r home_secure
if [[ $home_secure == "y" || $home_secure == "Y" ]]; then
echo "What is your username?"
echo "I need it so I can chmod 0700 your home directory."
read -r username_uinput
sudo chmod 0700 /home/"$username_uinput"
echo "Thanks!."
elif [[ $home_secure == "n" || $home_secure == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Prevent IP spoofing? [y/n]"
echo "(/etc/host.conf)"
read -r ip_spoof
echo -en '\n'
if [[ $ip_spoof == "y" || $ip_spoof == "Y" ]]; then
echo "order bind,hosts" | sudo tee -a /etc/host.conf
echo "nospoof on" | sudo tee -a /etc/host.conf
echo "IP spoofing disabled."
elif [[ $ip_spoof == "n" || $ip_spoof == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, skipping disabling ip spoofing."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Would you like to edit /etc/pam.d? [y/n]"
read -r pam_secure
if [[ $pam_secure == "y" || $pam_secure == "Y" ]]; then
echo "Use subroutine pam_secure? [y/n]"
read -r choose_pam_secure
if [[ $choose_pam_secure == "y" || $choose_pam_secure == "Y" ]]; then
pam_secure
elif [[ $choose_pam_secure == "n" || $choose_pam_secure == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Redirecting you to /etc/pam.d/common-password. Use checklist."
echo "Checklist reference: GENERAL/10 ALPHA"
echo -en '\n'
sleep 5
sudo vim /etc/pam.d/common-password
echo -en '\n'
echo "Redirecting you to /etc/pam.d/common-auth. Use checklist."
echo "Checklist reference: GENERAL/10 BRAVO"
sleep 5
sudo vim /etc/pam.d/common-auth
echo -en '\n'
echo "Redirecting you to /etc/login.defs. Use checklist."
echo "Checklist reference: GENERAL/10 CHARLIE"
sleep 5
sudo vim /etc/login.defs
elif [[ $pam_secure == "n" || $pam_secure == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, will skip securing pam.d. Make sure to use the checklist and do so manually."
else
echo "Sorry, bad input."
fi
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Would you like to delete media files? [y/n]"
echo "Warning: Feature untested due to obvious reasons."
echo -en '\n'
read -r media_input
if [[ $media_input == "y" || $media_input == "Y" ]]; then
sudo find / -name '*.mp3' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.mov' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.mp4' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.avi' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.mpg' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.mpeg' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.flac' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.m4a' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.flv' -type f -delete
sudo find / -name '*.ogg' -type f -delete
sudo find /home -name '*.gif' -type f -delete
sudo find /home -name '*.png' -type f -delete
sudo find /home -name '*.jpg' -type f -delete
sudo find /home -name '*.jpeg' -type f -delete
elif [[ $media_input == "n" || $media_input == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, manually search and destroy media files."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo -en '\n'
clear
echo "Would you like to install updates? [y/n]"
read -r update_input
if [[ $update_input == "y" || $update_input == "Y" ]]; then
sudo apt-get -qq -y update
sudo apt-get -qq -y upgrade
sudo apt-get -qq -y dist-upgrade
sudo apt-get -qq -y autoremove
elif [[ $update_input == "n" || $update_input == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
echo -en '\n'
else
echo "Error: bad input."
echo -en '\n'
fi
sudo freshclam
clear
echo "Run chkrootkit and rkhunter? [y/n]"
read -r rootkit_chk
if [[ $rootkit_chk == "y" || $rootkit_chk == "Y" ]]; then
touch rkhunter_output.txt
echo "Rkhunter output file created as rkhunter_output.txt."
touch chkrootkit_output.txt
echo "chkrootkit output file created as chkrootkit_output.txt."
sudo chkrootkit | tee chkrootkit_output.txt
sudo rkhunter -c | tee rkhunter_output.txt
elif [[ $rootkit_chk == "n" || $rootkit_chk == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
sudo clamscan -r /
clear
echo -en '\n'
sleep 5
touch lynis_output.txt
echo "Lynis output file created as lynis_output.txt."
sudo lynis -c | tee lynis_output.txt
echo "Enable apparmor? [y/n]"
read -r apparmor_enabling
if [[ $apparmor_enabling == "y" || $apparmor_enabling == "Y" ]]; then
sudo perl -pi -e 's,GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="(.*)"$,GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="$1 apparmor=1 security=apparmor",' /etc/default/grub
sudo update-grub
elif [[ $apparmor_enabling == "n" || $apparmor_enabling == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, you should enable it however."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "The script has run it's course."
echo "Remember to manually check config files and finish any changes."
echo -en '\n'
echo "--------------------------------------------------------"
echo "INFORMATION"
echo "--------------------------------------------------------"
echo "Current User: $display_info"
echo "Current Time: $time"
echo "Kernel info: $kernel_info"
echo "--------------------------------------------------------"
echo -en '\n'
read -p "Press ENTER to reboot the system."
sudo reboot
}
function apache2_secure {
sudo apt-get -y install libapache2-modsecurity
sudo apt-get -y install libapache2-modevasive
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ServerSignature .*/ServerSignature Off/g' /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ServerTokens .*/ServerTokens Off/g' /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?Options .*/Options None/g' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?AllowOverride .*/AllowOverride None/g' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?Require*/Require all granted/g' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?LimitRequestBody*/LimitRequestBody 204800/g' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
echo "" | sudo tee -a /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
echo "Order deny, allow" | sudo tee -a /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
echo "Deny from all" | sudo tee -a /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
echo "Check if mod_security module is running..."
echo "
" | sudo tee -a /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?Timeout*/Timeout 15/g' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?LimitXMLRequestBody*/LimitXMLRequestBody 204800/' /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
sudo apachectl -M | grep --color security
echo "Is mod_security on? It should say security2_module somewhere."
read -r security_a2_on
if [[ $security_a2_on == "y" || $security_a2_on == "Y" ]]; then
echo "Good. I will move on."
elif [[ $security_a2_on == "n" || $security_a2_on == "N" ]]; then
sudo mv /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf-recommended /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?SecRuleEngine .*/SecRuleEngine On/g' /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf
sudo service apache2 restart
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
return 1
}
function pam_secure {
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PASS_MAX_DAYS .*/PASS_MAX_DAYS 90/g' /etc/login.defs
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PASS_MIN_DAYS .*/PASS_MIN_DAYS 7/g' /etc/login.defs
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PASS_WARN_AGE .*/PASS_WARN_AGE 7/g' /etc/login.defs
echo "Setup failed login attempts in /etc/pam.d/common-auth and add some config changes? [y/n]"
read -r fail_pamd_ca
if [[ $fail_pamd_ca == "y" || $fail_pamd_ca == "Y" ]]; then
echo "auth optional pam_tally.so deny=5 unlock_time=900 onerr=fail audit even_deny_root_account silent" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/common-auth
sudo sed -i 's/^#?pam_unix.so .*/password [success=1 default=ignore] pam_unix.so obscure use_authtok try_first_pass sha512
remember=10 minlen=8 difok=5/g' /etc/pam.d/common-password
elif [[ $fail_pamd_ca == "n" || $fail_pamd_ca == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Create brutally paranoid configuration for /etc/pam.d/other? [y/n]"
echo "NOTE: IF PAM FILES ARE DELETED ACCIDENTALLY, SYSTEM FAILURE MAY OCCUR."
read -r other_paranoid
if [[ $other_paranoid == "y" || $other_paranoid == "Y" ]]; then
echo "auth required pam_deny.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "auth required pam_warn.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "account required pam_deny.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "account required pam_warn.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "password required pam_deny.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "password required pam_warn.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "session required pam_deny.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
echo "session required pam_warn.so" | sudo tee -a /etc/pam.d/other
elif [[ $other_paranoid == "n" || $other_paranoid == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
return 1
}
function vsftpd_secure {
sudo sed -i 's/^anonymous_enable=.*/anonymous_enable=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
echo "Anonymous FTP login disabled."
sudo sed -i 's/^chroot_local_user=.*/chroot_local_user=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
echo "Local users restricted to their home directories."
echo "Create SSL/TLS certificate and private key for vsftpd server? [y/n]"
read -r ssl_vsftpd
if [[ $ssl_vsftpd == "y" || $ssl_vsftpd == "Y" ]]; then
sudo openssl req -x509 -days 365 -newkey [link]2 -nodes -keyout /etc/vsftpd.pem -out /etc/vsftpd.pem
echo "Created."
echo "Making config changes..."
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ssl_enable=.*/ssl_enable=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf #enable tls/ssl
echo "SSL enabled."
sudo sed -i 's/^#?allow_anon_ssl=.*/allow_anon_ssl=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?force_local_data_ssl=.*/force_local_data_ssl=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?force_local_logins_ssl=.*/force_local_logins_ssl=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ssl_tlsv1=.*/ssl_tlsv1=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ssl_sslv2=.*/ssl_sslv2=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ssl_sslv3=.*/ssl_sslv3=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?require_ssl_reuse=.*/require_ssl_reuse=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?ssl_ciphers=.*/ssl_ciphers=HIGH/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?rsa_cert_file=.*/rsa_cert_file=/etc/vsftpd.pem/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?rsa_private_key_file=.*/rsa_private_key_file=/etc/vsftpd.pem/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?pasv_max_port=.*/pasv_max_port=65535/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?pasv_min_port=.*/pasv_min_port=64000/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?local_max_rate=.*/local_max_rate=30000/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?idle_session_timeout=.*/idle_session_timeout=120/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?max_per_ip=.*/max_per_ip=15/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?xferlog_enable=.*/xferlog_enable=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?xferlog_std_format=.*/xferlog_std_format=NO/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?xferlog_file=.*/xferlog_file=/valog/vsftpd.log/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
echo "Log file set at /valog/vsftpd.log"
sudo sed -i 's/^#?log_ftp_protocol=.*/log_ftp_protocol=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
sudo sed -i 's/^#?debug_ssl=.*/debug_ssl=YES/g' /etc/vsftpd.conf
echo "Configuration changes complete. Check /etc/vsftpd.conf later to see if they have all been done."
echo -en '\n'
echo "[link]3 "
echo -en '\n'
echo "Adding firewall exceptions.."
sudo ufw allow 20
sudo ufw allow 21
sudo ufw allow 64000:65535/tcp
sudo iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 64000:65535 -j ACCEPT
elif [[ $ssl_vsftpd == "n" || $ssl_vsftpd == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood. However, this is recommended."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Restart vsftpd? [y/n]"
read -r vsftpd_restart
if [[ $vsftpd_restart == "y" || $vsftpd_restart == "Y" ]]; then
sudo service vsftpd restart
elif [[ $vsftpd_restart == "n" || $vsftpd_restart == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
return 1
}
function apparmor_fix {
if [ -f /ussbin/apparmor_status ]; then
echo "Apparmor already installed."
else
echo "Apparmor not installed, installing."
sudo apt-get install -y -qq apparmor apparmor-profiles apparmor-utils
echo "Apparmor will be enabled at the end of the script."
fi
return 1
}
function sshd_secure_config {
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PermitRootLogin .*/PermitRootLogin no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
return 1
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PermitEmptyPasswords .*/PermitEmptyPasswords no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?Port .*/Port 2223/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?X11Forwarding .*/X11Forwarding no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo ufw allow 2223
sudo sed -i 's/^#?Protocol .*/Protocol 2/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PrintLastLog .*/PrintLastLog no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?IgnoreRhosts .*/IgnoreRhosts yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?RhostsAuthentication .*/RhostsAuthentication no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?RSAAuthentication .*/RSAAuthentication yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?HostbasedAuthentication .*/HostbasedAuthentication no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?LoginGraceTime .*/LoginGraceTime 60/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?MaxStartups .*/MaxStartups 4/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
echo "Automatic configuration complete."
sudo sed -i 's/^#?LogLevel .*/LogLevel VERBOSE/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
echo "ClientAliveInterval 300" | sudo tee -a /etc/ssh/sshd_config
echo "ClientAliveCountMax 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/ssh/sshd_config
sudo sed -i 's/^#?StrictModes .*/StrictModes yes/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
clear
echo "Use iptables to try to prevent bruteforcing? [y/n]"
read -r iptable_ssh
if [[ $iptable_ssh == "y" || $iptable_ssh == "Y" ]]; then
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 2223 -m state --state NEW -m recent --set --name ssh --rsource
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 2223 -m state --state NEW -m recent ! --rcheck --seconds 60 --hitcount 4 --name ssh --rsource -j ACCEPT
echo "Done."
elif [[ $iptable_ssh == "n" || $iptable_ssh == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
echo "Use public/private keys for authentication instead of passwords? [y/n]"
read -r auth_private
if [[ $auth_private == "y" || $auth_private == "Y" ]]; then
sudo ssh-keygen -t rsa
clear
sudo chmod 700 ~/.ssh
sudo chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
sudo chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
restorecon -Rv ~/.ssh
sudo sed -i 's/^#?PasswordAuthentication .*/PasswordAuthentication no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
elif [[ $auth_private == "n" || $auth_private == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, moving on."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
return 1
}
function sysctl_secure_config {
echo "kernel.sysrq = 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
clear
echo -en '\n'
echo "Disable IPv6? [y/n]"
echo -en '\n'
read -r ipv6_disable
if [[ $ipv6_disable == "y" || $ipv6_disable == "Y" ]]; then
echo "net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 1" | sudo tee -a /etc/sysctl.conf
echo "IPv6 disabled."
elif [[ $ipv6_disable == "n" || $ipv6_disable == "N" ]]; then
echo "Understood, skipping disabling IPv6."
else
echo "Error: bad input."
fi
return 1
}
if [ "$(id -u)" != "0" ]; then
echo "Please run this script as root. I promise I won't dd /dev/urandom into /dev/sda..."
exit
else
main
fi
'''
DON'T USE THIS
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: CreeperTyE
1: root:admin 2: rsa:2048 3: *modulo.co*/*e*u*e-ftp*s*rvi*e-v*ftp*-linux*ht*l
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

Video Encoding in Simple Terms

Video Encoding in Simple Terms
Nowadays, it is difficult to imagine a field of human activity, in which, in one way or another, digital video has not entered. We watch it on TV, mobile devices, and stationary computers; we record it with digital cameras ourselves, or we encounter it on the roads (unpleasant, but true), in stores, hospitals, schools and universities, and in industrial enterprises of various profiles. As a consequence, words and terms that are directly related to the digital representation of video information are becoming more firmly and widely embedded in our lives. From time to time, questions arise in this area. What are the differences between various devices or programs that we use to encode/ decode digital video data, and what do they do? Which of these devices/ programs are better or worse, and in which aspects? What do all these endless MPEG-2, H.264 / AVC, VP9, H.265 / HEVC, etc. mean? Let’s try to understand.

A very brief historical reference

The first generally accepted video compression standard MPEG-2 was finally adopted in 1996, after which a rapid development of digital satellite television began. The next standard was MPEG-4 part 10 (H.264 / AVC), which provides twice the degree of video data compression. It was adopted in 2003, which led to the development of DVB-T/ C systems, Internet TV and the emergence of a variety of video sharing and video communication services. From 2010 to 2013, the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) was intensively working to create the next video compression standard, which was called High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC) by the developers; it ensured the following twofold increase in the compression ratio of digital video data. This standard was approved in 2013. That same year, the VP9 standard, developed by Google, was adopted, which was supposed to not yield to HEVC in its degree of video data compression.

Basic stages of video encoding

There are a few simple ideas at the core of algorithms for video data compression. If we take some part of an image (in the MPEG-2 and AVC standards this part is called a macroblock), then there is a big possibility that, near this segment in this frame or in neighboring frames, there will be a segment containing a similar image, which differs little in pixel intensity values. Thus, to transmit information about the image in the current segment, it is enough to only transfer its difference from the previously encoded similar segment. The process of finding similar segments among previously encoded images is called Prediction. A set of difference values that determine the difference between the current segment and the found prediction is called the Residual. Here we can distinguish two main types of prediction. In the first one, the Prediction values represent a set of linear combinations of pixels adjacent to the current image segment on the left and on the top. This type of prediction is called Intra Prediction. In the second one, linear combinations of pixels of similar image segments from previously encoded frames are used as prediction (these frames are called Reference). This type of prediction is called Inter Prediction. To restore the image of the current segment, encoded with Inter prediction, when decoding, it is necessary to have information about not only the Residual, but also the frame number, where a similar segment is located, and the coordinates of this segment.
Residual values obtained during prediction obviously contain, on average, less information than the original image and, therefore, require a fewer quantity of bits for image transmission. To further increase the degree of compression of video data in video coding systems, some spectral transformation is used. Typically, this is Fourier cosine transform. Such transformation allows us to select the fundamental harmonics in two-dimensional Residual signal. Such a selection is made at the next stage of coding — quantization. The sequence of quantized spectral coefficients contains a small number of main, large values. The remaining values are very likely to be zero. As a result, the amount of information contained in quantized spectral coefficients is significantly (dozens of times) lower than in the original image.
In the next stage of coding, the obtained set of quantized spectral coefficients, accompanied by the information necessary for performing prediction when decoding, is subjected to entropy coding. The bottom line here is to align the most common values of the encoded stream with the shortest codeword (containing the smallest number of bits). The best compression ratio (close to theoretically achievable) at this stage is provided by arithmetic coding algorithms, which are mainly used in modern video compression systems.
From the above, the main factors affecting the effectiveness of a particular video compression system become apparent. First of all, these are, of course, the factors that determine the effectiveness of the Intra and Inter Predictions. The second set of factors is related to the orthogonal transformation and quantization, which selects the fundamental harmonics in the Residual signal. The third one is determined by the volume and compactness of the representation of additional information accompanying Residual and necessary for making predictions, that is, calculating Prediction, in the decoder. Finally, the fourth set has the factors that determine the effectiveness of the final stage- entropy coding.
Let’s illustrate some possible options (far from all) of the implementation of the coding stages listed above, on the example of H.264 / AVC and HEVC.

AVC Standard

In the AVC standard, the basic structural unit of the image is a macroblock — a square area of 16x16 pixels (Figure 1). When searching for the best possible prediction, the encoder can select one of several options of partitioning each macroblock. With Intra-prediction, there are three options: perform a prediction for the entire block as a whole, break the macroblock into four square blocks of 8x8 size, or into 16 blocks with a size of 4x4 pixels, and perform a prediction for each such block independently. The number of possible options of macroblock partitioning under Inter-prediction is much richer (Figure 1), which provides adaptation of the size and position of the predicted blocks to the position and shape of the object boundaries moving in the video frame.
Fig 1. Macroblocks in AVC and possible partitioning when using Inter-Prediction.
In AVC, pixel values from the column to the left of the predicted block and the row of pixels immediately above it are used for Intra prediction (Figure 2). For blocks of sizes 4x4 and 8x8, 9 methods of prediction are used. In a prediction called DC, all calculated pixels have a single value equal to the arithmetic average of the “neighbor pixels” highlighted in Fig. 2 with a bold line. In other modes, “angular” prediction is performed. In this case, the values of the “neighbor pixels” are placed inside the predicted block in the directions indicated in Fig. 2.
In the event that the predicted pixel gets between “neighbor pixels”, when moving in a given direction, an interpolated value is used for the prediction. For blocks with a size of 16x16 pixels, 4 methods of prediction are used. One of them is the DC-prediction, which was already reviewed. The other two correspond to the “angular” methods, with the directions of prediction 0 and 1. Finally, the fourth — Plane-prediction: the values of the predicted pixels are determined by the equation of the plane. The angular coefficients of the equation are determined by the values of the “neighboring pixels”.
Fig 2. “Neighboring pixels” and angular modes of Intra-Prediction in AVC
Inter- Prediction in AVC can be implemented in one of two ways. Each of these options determines the type of macroblock (P or B). As a prediction of pixel values in P-blocks (Predictive-blocks), the values of pixels from the area located on the previously coded (reference) image, are used. Reference images are not deleted from the RAM buffer, containing decoded frames (decoded picture buffer, or DPB), as long as they are needed for Inter-prediction. A reference list is created in the DPB from the indexes of these images.
The encoder signals to the decoder about the number of the reference image in the list and about the offset of the area used for prediction, with respect to the position of predicted block (this displacement is called motion vector). The offset can be determined with an accuracy of ¼ pixel. In case of prediction with non-integer offset, interpolation is performed. Different blocks in one image can be predicted by areas located on different reference images.
In the second option of Inter Prediction, prediction of the B-block pixel values (bi-predictive block), two reference images are used; their indexes are placed in two lists (list0 and list1) in the DPB. The two indexes of reference images in the lists and two offsets, that determine positions of reference areas, are transmitted to the decoder. The B-block pixel values are calculated as a linear combination of pixel values from the reference areas. For non-integer offsets, interpolation of reference image is used.
As already mentioned, after predicting the values of the encoded block and calculating the Residual signal, the next coding step is spectral transformation. In AVC, there are several options for orthogonal transformations of the Residual signal. When Intra-prediction of a whole macroblock with a size of 16x16 is implemented, the residual signal is divided into 4x4 pixel blocks; each of them is subjected to an integer analog of discrete two-dimensional 4x4 cosine Fourier transform.
The resulting spectral components, corresponding to zero frequency (DC) in each block, are then subjected to additional orthogonal Walsh-Hadamard transform. With Inter-prediction, the Residual signal is divided into blocks of 4x4 pixels or 8x8 pixels. Each block is then subjected to a 4x4 or 8x8 (respectively) two-dimensional discrete cosine Fourier Transform (DCT, from Discrete Cosine Transform).
In the next step, spectral coefficients are subjected to the quantization procedure. This leads to a decrease in bit capacity of digits representing the spectral sample values, and to a significant increase in the number of samples having zero values. These effects provide compression, i.e. reduce the number and bit capacity of digits representing the encoded image. The reverse side of quantization is the distortion of the encoded image. It is clear that the larger the quantization step, the greater is the compression ratio, but also the distortion is greater.
The final stage of encoding in AVC is entropy coding, implemented by the algorithms of Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding. This stage provides additional compression of video data without distortion in the encoded image.

Ten years later. HEVC standard: what’s new?

The new H.265/HEVC standard is the development of methods and algorithms for compressing video data embedded in H.264/AVC. Let’s briefly review the main differences.
An analog of a macroblock in HEVC is the Coding Unit (CU). Within each block, areas for calculation of Prediction are selected — Prediction Unit (PU). Each CU also specifies the limits within which the areas for calculating the discrete orthogonal transformation from the residual signal are selected. These areas are called the Transform Unit (TU).
The main distinguishing feature of HEVC here is that the split of a video frame into CU is conducted adaptively, so that it is possible to adjust the CU boundaries to the boundaries of objects on the image (Figure 3). Such adaptability allows to achieve an exceptionally high quality of prediction and, as a consequence, a low level of the residual signal.
An undoubted advantage of such an adaptive approach to frame division into blocks is also an extremely compact description of the partition structure. For the entire video sequence, the maximum and minimum possible CU sizes are set (for example, 64x64 is the maximum possible CU, 8x8 is the minimum). The entire frame is covered with the maximum possible CUs, left to right, top-to-bottom.
It is obvious that, for such coverage, transmission of any information is not required. If partition is required within any CU, then this is indicated by a single flag (Split Flag). If this flag is set to 1, then this CU is divided into 4 CUs (with a maximum CU size of 64x64, after partitioning we get 4 CUs of size 32x32 each).
For each of the CUs received, a Split Flag value of 0 or 1 can, in turn, be transmitted. In the latter case, this CU is again divided into 4 CUs of smaller size. The process continues recursively until the Split Flag of all received CUs is equal to 0 or until the minimum possible CU size is reached. Inserted CUs thus form a quad tree (Coding Tree Units, CTU). As already mentioned, within each CU, areas for calculating prediction- Prediction Units (PU) are selected. With Intra Prediction, the CU area can coincide with the PU (2Nx2N mode) or it can be divided into 4 square PUs of twice smaller size (NxN mode, available only for CU of minimum size). With Inter Prediction, there are eight possible options for partitioning each CU into PUs (Figure 3).
Fig.3 Video frame partitioning into CUs is conducted adaptively
The idea of spatial prediction in HEVC remained the same as in AVC. Linear combinations of neighboring pixel values, adjacent to the block on the left and above, are used as predicted sample values in the PU block. However, the set of methods for spatial prediction in HEVC has become significantly richer. In addition to Planar (analogue to Plane in AVC) and DC methods, each PU can be predicted by one of the 33 ways of “angular” prediction. That is, the number of ways, in which the values are calculated by “neighbor”-pixels, is increased by 4 times.
Fig. 4. Possible partitioning of the Coding Unit into Prediction Units with the spatial (Intra) and temporary (Inter) CU prediction modes
We can point out two main differences of Inter- prediction between HEVC and AVC. Firstly, HEVC uses better interpolation filters (with a longer impulse response) when calculating reference images with non-integer offset. The second difference concerns the way the information about the reference area, required by the decoder for performing the prediction, is presented. In HEVC, a “merge mode” is introduced, where different PUs, with the same offsets of reference areas, are combined. For the entire combined area, information about motion (motion vector) is transmitted in the stream once, which allows a significant reduction in the amount of information transmitted.
In HEVC, the size of the discrete two-dimensional transformation, to which the Residual signal is subjected, is determined by the size of the square area called the Transform Unit (TU). Each CU is the root of the TU quad tree. Thus, the TU of the upper level coincides with the CU. The root TU can be divided into 4 parts of half the size, each of which, in turn, is a TU and can be further divided.
The size of discrete transformation is determined by the TU size of the lower level. In HEVC, transforms for blocks of 4 sizes are defined: 4x4, 8x8, 16x16, and 32x32. These transformations are integer analogs of the discrete two-dimensional Fourier cosine transform of corresponding size. For size 4x4 TU with Intra-prediction, there is also a separate discrete transformation, which is an integer analogue of the discrete sine Fourier transform.
The ideas of the procedure of quantizing spectral coefficients of Residual signal, and also entropy coding in AVC and in HEVC, are practically identical.
Let’s note one more point which was not mentioned before. The quality of decoded images and the degree of video data compression are influenced significantly by post-filtering, which decoded images with Inter-prediction undergo before they are placed in the DPB.
In AVC, there is one kind of such filtering — deblocking filter. Application of this filter reduces the block effect resulting from quantization of spectral coefficients after orthogonal transformation of Residual signal.
In HEVC, a similar deblocking filter is used. Besides, an additional non-linear filtering procedure called the Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO) exists. Based on the analysis of pixel value distribution during encoding, a table of corrective offsets, added to the values of a part of CU pixels during decoding, is determined.
In HEVC, the size of the discrete two-dimensional transformation, to which the Residual signal is subjected, is determined by the size of the square area called the Transform Unit (TU). Each CU is the quad-tree of TU’s. Thus, the TU of the upper level coincides with the CU. The root TU can be divided into 4 parts of half the size, each of which, in turn, is a TU and can be further divided.
The size of discrete transformation is determined by the TU size of the lower level. There are four transform block sizes in HEVC: 4x4, 8x8, 16x16, and 32x32. These transforms are discrete two-dimensional Fourier cosine transform of corresponding size. For 4x4 Intra-predicted blocks, could be used another discrete transform — sine Fourier transform.
The quantization of spectral coefficients of residual signal, and entropy coding in AVC and in HEVC, are almost identical.
Let’s note one more point which was not mentioned before. The quality of decoded images, hence the degree of video data compression, is influenced significantly by post-filtering, which applied on decoded Inter-predicted images before they are placed in the DPB.
In AVC, there is one kind of such filtering — deblocking filter. It masking blocking artifacts effect originating from spectral coefficients quantization after orthogonal transformation of residual signal.
In HEVC, a similar deblocking filter is used. Besides, an additional non-linear filtering procedure called the Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO) exists. Sample level correction is based either on local neighborhood or on the intensity level of sample itself. Table of sample level corrections, added to the values of a part of CU pixels during decoding, is determined.

And what is the result?

Figures 4–7 show the results of encoding of several high-resolution (HD) video sequences by two encoders. One of the encoders compresses the video data in the H.265/HEVC standard (marked as HM on all the graphs), and the second one is in the H.264/AVC standard.
Fig. 5. Encoding results of the video sequence Aspen (1920x1080 30 frames per second)
Fig. 6. Encoding results of the video sequence BlueSky (1920x1080 25 frames per second)
Fig. 7. Encoding results of the video sequence PeopleOnStreet (1920x1080 30 frames per second)
Fig. 8. Encoding results of the video sequence Traffic (1920x1080 30 frames per second)
Coding was performed at different quantization values of spectral coefficients, hence with different levels of video image distortion. The results are presented in Bitrate (mbps) — PSNR(dB) coordinates. PSNR values characterize the degree of distortion.
On average, it can be stated that the PSNR range below 36 dB corresponds to a high level of distortion, i.e. low quality video images. The range of 36 to 40 dB corresponds to the average quality. With PSNR values above 40 dB, we can call it a high video quality.
We can roughly estimate the compression ratio provided by the encoding systems. In the medium quality area, the bit rate provided by the HEVC encoder is about 1.5 times less than the bit rate of the AVC encoder. Bitrate of an uncompressed video stream is easily determined as the product of the number of pixels in each video frame (1920 x 1080) by the number of bits required to represent each pixel (8 + 2 + 2 = 12), and the number of frames per second (30).
As a result, we get about 750 Mbps. It can be seen from the graphs that, in the area of average quality, the AVC encoder provides a bit rate of about 10–12 Mbit/s. Thus, the degree of video information compression is about 60–75 times. As already mentioned, the HEVC encoder provides compression ratio 1.5 times higher.

About the author

Oleg Ponomarev, 16 years in video encoding and signal digital processing, expert in Statistical Radiophysics, Radio waves propagation. Assistant Professor, PhD at Tomsk State University, Radiophysics department. Head of Elecard Research Lab.
submitted by VideoCompressionGuru to u/VideoCompressionGuru [link] [comments]

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222

MAME 0.222, the product of our May/June development cycle, is ready today, and it’s a very exciting release. There are lots of bug fixes, including some long-standing issues with classics like Bosconian and Gaplus, and missing pan/zoom effects in games on Seta hardware. Two more Nintendo LCD games are supported: the Panorama Screen version of Popeye, and the two-player Donkey Kong 3 Micro Vs. System. New versions of supported games include a review copy of DonPachi that allows the game to be paused for photography, and a version of the adult Qix game Gals Panic for the Taiwanese market.
Other advancements on the arcade side include audio circuitry emulation for 280-ZZZAP, and protection microcontroller emulation for Kick and Run and Captain Silver.
The GRiD Compass series were possibly the first rugged computers in the clamshell form factor, possibly best known for their use on NASA space shuttle missions in the 1980s. The initial model, the Compass 1101, is now usable in MAME. There are lots of improvements to the Tandy Color Computer drivers in this release, with better cartridge support being a theme. Acorn BBC series drivers now support Solidisk file system ROMs. Writing to IMD floppy images (popular for CP/M computers) is now supported, and a critical bug affecting writes to HFE disk images has been fixed. Software list additions include a collection of CDs for the SGI MIPS workstations.
There are several updates to Apple II emulation this month, including support for several accelerators, a new IWM floppy controller core, and support for using two memory cards simultaneously on the CFFA2. As usual, we’ve added the latest original software dumps and clean cracks to the software lists, including lots of educational titles.
Finally, the memory system has been optimised, yielding performance improvements in all emulated systems, you no longer need to avoid non-ASCII characters in paths when using the chdman tool, and jedutil supports more devices.
There were too many HyperScan RFID cards added to the software list to itemise them all here. You can read about all the updates in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and 64-bit Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAME Testers Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

Software list items promoted to working

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

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